Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major contributor to stroke, cognitive impairment and dementia with limited therapeutic interventions. There is a critical need to provide mechanistic insight and improve translation between pre-clinical research and the clinic. A 2-day workshop was held which brought together experts from several disciplines in cerebrovascular disease, dementia and cardiovascular biology, to highlight current advances in these fields, explore synergies and scope for development. These proceedings provide a summary of key talks at the workshop with a particular focus on animal models of cerebral vascular disease and dementia, mechanisms and approaches to improve translation. The outcomes of discussion groups on related themes to identify the gaps in knowledge and requirements to advance knowledge are summarized.