PURPOSE: To describe the distribution of corneal hysteresis (CH) in a large cohort and explore its associated factors and possible clinical applications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study within the UK Biobank, a large cohort study in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed CH data from 93 345 eligible participants in the UK Biobank cohort, aged 40 to 69 years. METHODS: All analyses were performed using left eye data. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between CH and demographic, lifestyle, ocular, and systemic variables. Piecewise logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between self-reported glaucoma and CH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corneal hysteresis (mmHg). RESULTS: The mean CH was 10.6 mmHg (10.4 mmHg in male and 10.8 mmHg in female participants). After adjusting for covariables, CH was significantly negatively associated with male sex, age, black ethnicity, self-reported glaucoma, diastolic blood pressure, and height. Corneal hysteresis was significantly positively associated with smoking, hyperopia, diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), greater deprivation (Townsend index), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg). Self-reported glaucoma and CH were significantly associated when CH was less than 10.1 mmHg (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.94 per mmHg CH increase) after adjusting for covariables. When CH exceeded 10.1 mmHg, there was no significant association between CH and self-reported glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: In our analyses, CH was significantly associated with factors including age, sex, and ethnicity, which should be taken into account when interpreting CH values. In our cohort, lower CH was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of self-reported glaucoma when CH was less than 10.1 mmHg. Corneal hysteresis may serve as a biomarker aiding glaucoma case detection.